The development characteristics of solar heating
(1) Give priority to the development of passive solar heating technology in towns and rural areas. When China’s solar thermal utilization technology started to develop in 1980, the country’s overall economic strength and the living standards of urban and rural people were low. The country’s development policy in the field of solar heating and heating technology at that time was to give priority to the development of passive solar heating technology. This makes the actual application engineering for a long period of time (before 2000) to be dominated by passive solar heating buildings. In addition, since most of the residential buildings in China’s towns and rural areas are single-story or two- or three-story villas, it is relatively easy to implement various types of passive solar heating designs. Simply using passive solar heating technology can basically meet their requirements. . Therefore, China’s passive solar heating technology is mainly used in towns and rural areas.
(2) Preliminary formation of a technical support system for passive solar heating with Chinese characteristics. Since China’s initial strategic policy is to give priority to the development of passive solar heating technology, a large number of passive solar heating projects have been included in the national “sixth five-year”, “seventh five-year” and “eighth five-year” scientific and technological research plans. Especially after the completion of the national “Seventh Five-Year” scientific and technological research plan, a technical support system for passive solar heating with Chinese characteristics has been initially formed, including basic theories, calculation software, design manuals, design atlases, thermal insulation materials, new heat-collecting components and national standards, etc. It has laid a solid foundation for vigorously promoting passive solar buildings in the construction of new rural areas.
(3) Active solar heating started late and the level needs to be improved, but the development prospects are promising. Restricted by the country’s economic level and people’s consumption capacity, the engineering application of active solar heating technology, which requires relatively high investment, strong technology and better product performance, only started in China after 2000. At present, only a small number of single solar heating and heating demonstration projects have been built, and solar district heating and heating are still blank. The operation effect monitoring and design parameter optimization verification of the existing solar heating and heating demonstration projects are still in the process, and the large-scale application is far behind the developed countries in the world, and the overall level needs to be improved urgently. However, with the national energy conservation and emission reduction requirements, the promotion of demonstration projects for the application of renewable energy in buildings, and the release and implementation of the national standard “Technical Specifications for Solar Heating Engineering”, the application of active solar heating and heating engineering has accelerated the development speed and shows a good momentum of development.
(4) Promote the promotion and application of solar heating technology through demonstration projects. An important feature of the development of China’s solar heating technology is to vigorously carry out the construction of related technology demonstration projects through national, central ministries, and local scientific and technological projects and international cooperation projects. In terms of passive solar heating, important scientific and technological projects such as the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Construction, and projects supported by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the Global Environment Facility; active solar heating mainly includes scientific and technological research plans supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Construction, and the demonstration and promotion projects of renewable energy building applications by the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Construction. After summarizing the experience of the demonstration project, we can obtain beneficial and applicable design parameters and data, analyze and summarize the corresponding design specifications, guide and drive further promotion and application, thereby avoiding the ineffective use of funds.
(5) The application of active and passive combined solar heating heating technology is less, and the development is slow. At present, there is no real active and passive combined solar heating building built. Mainly because of the high construction cost, the large investment, and the vast majority of Chinese cities are multi-storey and high-rise buildings, the passive solar design forms that can be used are limited, and the outer envelope area for the active solar heating system is not enough, and the conditions for villa-type houses in other countries are very different.