The sixth stage of the brief history of solar energy utilization
The sixth stage: 1973~1980
Since oil replaced coal in the world’s energy composition, it has become an important factor in the world economy and the survival and development of a country. The Middle East war that broke out in October 1973 forced the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries to use oil as a weapon to support the struggle of the people in the Middle East and safeguard the interests of the oil-producing countries. The “oil crisis” that occurred in the world objectively prompted people to realize that the energy structure must be changed and that the transition to a new energy structure should be accelerated. Many countries, especially developed countries, have reinforced their support for solar energy and other renewable energy sources, and the development and utilization of solar energy has once again risen in the world. This stage is an unprecedented period of great development in the use of solar energy in the world, with the following characteristics:
(1) Countries have strengthened the planning of solar energy research work. Many countries have formulated short-term and long-term sunshine plans. The development and utilization of solar energy has become a government action, and support has been greatly strengthened. For example, in 1973, the United States formulated the National Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation Plan, and the solar energy research funding was greatly increased, and the Solar Development Bank was established, which greatly promoted the commercialization of solar energy products. In 1974, Japan announced the “Sunshine Plan” formulated by the government. Research projects on the utilization of solar energy include solar houses, industrial solar systems, solar thermal power generation, solar cell production technology, decentralized and concentrated solar photovoltaic power generation systems, etc., which have invested a lot of manpower, material resources and financial resources.
(2) The field of research continues to expand, the research work is getting deeper and deeper, and a number of more important results have been achieved.
Such as compound parabolic mirror concentrating heat collector (CPC), vacuum heat collecting tube, amorphous silicon solar cell, solar thermal power generation, solar pool power generation, photolysis of water to produce hydrogen, etc.
(3) Products such as solar water heaters and solar cells have begun to be commercialized, and the solar energy industry has been initially established, but the scale is small and the economic benefits are not yet satisfactory.
(4) The solar energy development plans formulated by many countries at this stage have the problems of excessive requirements and urgency.They hope to replace fossil energy in a relatively short period of time and realize the large-scale utilization of solar energy, but the problems and difficulties encountered in the implementation process are underestimated.
(4) The solar energy development plans formulated by many countries at this stage have the problems of excessive requirements and urgency. They hope to replace fossil energy in a relatively short period of time and realize the large-scale utilization of solar energy. However, the problems encountered in the implementation process And the difficulty is underestimated. For example, the United States plans to build a small solar demonstration satellite power station in 1985 and a 5×106kW space solar power station in 1995 are such projects.
Later, it had to be adjusted due to funding and other reasons. So far, the space solar power station has not been launched.
This worldwide upsurge of solar energy development and utilization has also promoted the development of solar energy development and utilization in China. Some scientific and technical personnel have devoted themselves to the solar energy industry, actively making suggestions to relevant government departments, publishing books and publications, introducing foreign solar energy utilization trends and technologies. The promotion and application of solar energy has developed rapidly. Solar cookers are promoted in rural areas, solar water heaters are developed and applied in cities, and solar cells used in space are applied to the ground.In 1975, relevant state departments held the “First National Experience Exchange Meeting on Solar Energy Utilization” in Anyang City, Henan Province, incorporated solar energy research and promotion into the national plan, and obtained special funds and special support for shortage of materials; some colleges and universities and scientific research institutes have set up solar energy research laboratories or research groups one after another, and some have begun preparations for the establishment of solar energy research institutes. In 1979, the National Economic and Trade Commission and the National Science and Technology Commission held the “Second National Solar Energy Utilization Experience Exchange Meeting” in Xi’an, formulated a national development plan for solar energy utilization, established the Chinese Solar Energy Society, and further promoted the development of China’s solar energy industry.